Strains of Wine Yeast
Active Dry Yeasts
Côte des Blancs :
Formerly known as
Flor Sherry :
Develops "flor" aerobically, but also useful for anaerobic
fermentations of Port,
Montrachet : Perhaps the most popular yeast used. It is available for both red and white wine fermentations and may be called Montrachet Red and Montrachet White. It works especially well in producing Chardonnay in barrel and stainless steel. It also tolerates sulfur dioxide well, but does not work well with high sugar levels (more than 23.5 percent). It is this ineffectiveness in high sugar levels that is most likely responsible for many stuck fermentations.
Pasteur Red : Pasteur
red is also called French red. Like
Pasteur White : Pasteur white is also called French white. As the name suggests, it is used primarily for white wine fermentation because of its ability to ferment slowly and tolerate cold temperatures. It also gives off a noticeable yeasty aroma. Pasteur white foams considerably so it works better in stainless steel rather than wooden barrels.
Premier Curvee : Also
known as Prise de Mousse, this is a
Steinberg : A strain
Lalvin 43 : This yeast was selected for its exceptional ability to restart stuck fermentations, out-performing 33 different isolates tested against each other and the traditional strains typically used to restart stuck fermentations. The stuck fermentations used in the selection process were from wines with high alcohols (14.3% with 21 gm/l residual sugar) and high free SO2 (35 mg/l). Although selected for its restart abilities, it also gives good sensory results when used in high sugar musts. It is a fast fermenter with a temperature range of 55-95°. Alcohol tolerance is at leat 18%.
Lalvin 71B-1122 (
Lalvin AC- : This
yeast was selected from fermentations in the
Lalvin AMH (Assmanshausen) : This yeast enhances the varietal character of such grapes as Pinot Noir and Zinfandel. It is considered a color friendly strain that enhances spicy and fruity flavors and aromas. This strain has a long lag phase, a slow to medium fermentation rate and benefits greatly from the use of superior nutrients. Good strain domination is obtained if the culture is allowed to develop in about 10% of the total must for about 8 hours before final inoculation. It has a 15% alcohol tolerance at a temperature rage of 68-86° F.
Lalvin BA11 : This
strain is a relatively new selection (1997), isolated near Estação
Vitivinicola de Barraida in
Lalvin BDX : A French isolate, Lallemand touts this strain as "The perfect fermenter." It has perfect fermentation kinetics at a moderate rate and temperature (64-86° F.) and does not generate a lot of heat during fermentation. It is highly recommended for the production of quality dry red wines (alcohol toxicity at 16%), especially Merlot and Cabernet sauvignon, with minimum color loss and enhanced flavor and aroma. Like BA11, it requires a high-nitrogen nutrient.
Lalvin BGY (
Lalvin BM45 : This strain was selected from many world class Brunello di Montalcino fermentations for its enological characteristics. It is a relatively slow starter, well adapted to long maceration programs within a 64-82° temperature range. It has high nitrogen requirements and can produce H2S if nutrient-starved. It produces high levels of polysaccharides and therefore wines with increased mouthfeel. It tends to bring out aromas in Sangiovese described as fruit jams, rose and cherry liquors, with evident and clean notes of sweet spices, licorice and cedar. It also is used to minimize vegetal characteristics and can be used with Chardonnay as a blending component to increase mouthfeel. With a 16% alcohol toxicity ceiling, it reliably ferments to dryness.
Lalvin BRL97 : This Barolo strain was selected from over 600 isolates taken from 31 wineries of the Barolo region as a natural yeast from Nebbiolo able to retain and enhance color. It is a fast starter and moderately speedy fermenter within a temperature range of 63-84° F. that demonstrates good MLF compatibility. It is recommended for its color stabilization and sensory contributions in heavier structured reds such as Zinfandel, Barbera, Merlot and Nebbiolo. It enhances color stability, maintains structure and is favored when long aging is planned. It ferments to 16% alcohol and has moderate nitrogen needs.
Lalvin CSM : Isolated
Lalvin CY3079 : This
strain was selected from fermentations in the Burgundy region to complement
the typical white
Lalvin DV10 : This is
"the original Champagne isolate," according to Lallemand, known in
other contexts as
Lalvin EC-1118 (Prise
de Mousse) : This is the original, steady, low foamer, excellent for barrel
fermentation or for working on heavy suspended pulps. It is one of the most
popular wine yeasts in the world. It ferments well at low temperatures,
flocculates well, and produces very compact lees. It is good for
Lalvin ICV-D21 (
Lalvin ICV-D47 (Côtes-du-Rhône) : This is a low-foaming quick fermenter that settles well and forms compact lees at the end of fermentation, although when left on the lees, ripe spicy aromas with tropical and citrus notes develop. This strain tolerates fermentation temperatures ranging from 50° to 86° F. and enhances mouth feel due to complex carbohydrates and high polysaccharide production. Malolactic fermentation proceeds well in wine made with ICV-D47. This strain is recommended for making wines from white varieties such as Chardonnay and for rosé style wines. It is ideal for persimmon, peach, nectarine, paw-paw, and mango, as well as aromatic wines such as rose petal, elderflower, anise and woodruff. It is also an excellent choice for producing mead if supplemented with yeast nutrients, especially usable nitrogen. Its alcohol ceiling is 14%.
Lalvin ICV-D80 (Côte
Rôtie) : This strain was isolated in the
Lalvin ICV-D254 : This Rhône strain was isolated from Syrah fermentations after screening 3,000 isolates and putting 450 of them through trials for their enological properties. It was selected for its ability to ferment in low-to-medium nitrogen musts. It is a low foamer with an alcohol tolerance of up to 16% when fermentation does not exceed 82° F. (53° is the low). In red wines this yeast strain develops ripe fruit, jam, and cedar aromas together with a mild spiciness. On the palate it promises a high fore-mouth volume, big mid-palate mouthfeel with intense fruit concentration, and a mild spice and smooth tannin finish. Used on white wines -- in particular barrel fermented Chardonnay -- the sensory profile is described as showing pronounced butterscotch, cream, smoke, hazelnut, and almond aromas.
Lalvin ICV-GRE : This
strain from the Cornas area of the
Lalvin K1-V1116 (
Lalvin L2056 : This strain was selected for its ability to maintain varietal fruit aromas and flavors of Côtes du Rhône varieties. It retains varietal aromas and flavors well, has good alcohol tolerance (16%), and low SO2 production. It maintains good color stability at a temperature range is 59-89° F. It is a quick to moderate rate fermenter with a relatively high nutrient requirement. It is excellent for forward fruit style reds and is becoming more available.
Lalvin L2226 : This is another vineyard isolate from Côtes du Rhône. It is alcohol tolerant to 18% over a temperature range is 59-89° F. and is highly recommended for high sugar reds and late harvest wines. In red varietals, high color and good structure as well as black cherry, berry and cherry cola aromas can be obtained with high nitrogen nutrients.
Lalvin MO5 : Isolated in the Loire Valley Muscadet region, this is a slow fermenter that requires adequate nutrients and high levels of oxygen. It works particularly well in low maturity white grapes from cool regions, achieving 14% alcohol at 59-90° F. With lees aging, it will produce roundness and lower acidity. Even in low quality fruit it produces floral esters and fruity, balanced wines with a long finish.
Lalvin M1 : This strain is used to produce aromatic rosé and white wines, especially wines with residual sugar. Due to the high production of esters, typical descriptors include 'fruit punch', especially when fermented at lower temperatures (down to 54° F.) and provided adequate, balanced nutrition with high nitrogen. The production of esters is limited at temperatures above 68° F. and alcohol tolerance tops at 16%. The yeast flocculates and settles to give compact lees.
Lalvin M2 : This is a neutral to low ester-producing yeast and needs a high level of balanced nutrients with moderate nitrogen for a strong fermentation finish. It can achieve 15% alcohol at 59-86° F. In both reds and whites it can be distinguished by its expression of citrus and blossom notes, but is also excellent for producing well-rounded rosé wines.
Lalvin QA23 : This is a Portugese isolate used for Sauvignon Blanc, Chenin Blanc, Colombard, and Semillon for production of fresh, fruity, clean wines. It enhances aromas of terpenic varietals through beta-glucosidase activity. It has a low nutrient requirement and will ferment juice of low solids content at low temperatures (50-90° F. range). It is a fast fermenter with an alcohol ceiling of 16%.
Lalvin R2 : Isolated
in the Sauternes region of
Lalvin RA17 : This
yeast was isolated in
(Bourgovin) : This yeast is traditionally used in the
Lalvin R-HST : This
strain was selected for its exceptional oenological properties in Riesling
from trials conducted 1991 to 1996 in
Lalvin S6U : This strain was selected for its unique ecological characteristics, such as the ability to ferment at low temperatures in musts with low levels of suspended solids. The most unique properties of this strain are its high glycerol production (1-2 g/l higher than other strains) and high titratable acidity (1.5 g/l higher) at the end of fermentation, adding to increased mouthfeel. Repeat fermentations with this strain have shown lower alcohol conversion compared to other Saccharomyces uvarum strains when fermented under cool conditions.
Lalvin Simi-White : This is a popular choice for fruity white and rosé style wines. It can achieve 14% alcohol at 59-86° F. It is prized for its ester-producing aroma and flavor contribution to Chardonnay and has been described as contributing creamy fruit. It is highly affected by nutrient composition and juice handling procedures and has a tendency to produce a lot of foam.
Lalvin Syrah : This Côte du Rhône isolate is used for Syrah, Merlot and Carignane. It is a high glycerol producer and offers good mouthfeel and stable color extraction. Its temperature range is 50-90° F. with alcohol production to 16%. It requires high nutrient levels and shows the best sensory results when rehydrated according to Lallemand's suggestions. Typical aromas include violets, raspberries, cassis, strawberries, and black pepper.
Lalvin T73 : Isolated
from a premium Spanish Claret in the
Lalvin T306 : This strain was isolated from indigenous fermentations of Pinot Noir at Tyrrell's Vineyards, Pokolbin, NSW Australia. It can achieve 14% alcohol at 59-86° F. It is used mainly for fruit focused Pinot Gris, Chardonnay, Semillon, and Chenin Blanc. In barrel fermented Chardonnay it contributes elegant, light white fruit. It requires nutrients high in nitrogen and ferments moderately fast.
Lalvin W15 : This
strain was isolated from a high quality Müller Thurgau must in
Lalvin W27 : This Swiss strain boasts a slow, steady, low-foaming fermentation tolerant of low temperatures (39-85° F. range). Its low heat production make it an excellent choice for whites and reds alike, with reds experiencing a lack of color loss due to low glycosidase production. Alcohol toxicity is 14% and it is more tolerant of concurrent malolactic fermentation than most yeasts.
Lalvin W46 : This
strain was isolated from a Pinot Noir fermentation in the
Vinter's Choice Yeast Cultures
3134 Sake #9 : Sake
yeast #9 used in conjunction with Koji for making a wide variety of Asian
Jius (rice based beverages). Full bodied profile with true Sake character.
Sake, Nigori, Dai Gingo, Fruit,
3242 Chablis : Produces extremely fruity profile, high ester formation, bready, vanilla notes. Allows fruit character to dominate aroma and flavor profile. Finishes slightly sweet and soft. Fruity White Wines, Chardonnay, Chablis, Ciders, Gewurtztraminer, Chenin Blanc, Pinot Gris.
3783 Rudisheimer : Produces distinct Riesling character. Rich flavor, creamy, fruity profile with nice dry finish and a hint of Riesling sweetness in the aftertaste. Rhine Wines, Fruity Ciders, Riesling, lce Wine.
3237 Steinberg : Classic German yeast from the Rheingau District produces full bodied wines with great depth, dry smokey characteristics with a sharp finish, drier than # 3783. Riesling, Sylvaner, Moselles, Liebfraumilch.
3277 Assmannhausen Red : Ferments slower than most red wine strains. Enhances vinifera character in French American hybrids. Cold tolerant. Red German Wine, Riesling, Red Varletals, Merlot, Red French American Hybrids.
3028 Pasteur Red :
Ideal for red or white wines which mature rapidly with beauijolais type
fruitiness and for bigger reds requiring aging. Low foaming, low sulfur
production over a broad temperature range. Cabernet, Red Varietals, Gamay
3244 Chianti : Rich, very big, bold, well rounded profile. Nice soft fruit character with dry crisp finish. Barolo, Barbera, Barbaresco, Nebbiolo, Chianti, Valpolicella.
3347 Eau de Vie - (Water of Life) : A very good choice for alcohol tolerance and stuck fermentations. Produces a very clean dry profile, low ester and other volatile aromatics. 21% alcohol tolerance. Cordials, Grappa, Barley Wine, Eau de Vie, Single Malts.
WLP720 Sweet Mead/Wine : A wine yeast strain that is less attenuative than WLP715, leaving some residual sweetness. Slightly fruity and will tolerate alcohol concentrations up to 15% with low floccuation. A good choice for sweet mead and cider, as well as Blush wines, Gewurztraminer, and Riesling. Attenuation less than 75%. Optimum fermentation temperature is 70-75° F.
WLP730 Chardonnay White Wine : This is a good yeast for dry white wines. Slight ester production, low sulfur dioxide production. Enhances varietal character. This is a good choice for all white and blush wines, including Chablis, Chenin Blanc, Semillon, and Sauvignon Blanc. Fermentation speed is moderate, alcohol tolerance is 14%, floccuation is low. Attenuation is greater than 80% at the optimum fermentation temperature of 50-90° F.
WLP740 Merlot Red
Wine : Neutral, low fusel alcohol production. Will ferment to dryness,
alcohol tolerance to 18%. This is a vigorous fermenter well suited for
WLP760 Cabernet Red Wine : High temperature tolerance, moderate fermentation speed, and alcohol tolerance to 16% make this a good choice when temperature cannot be rigorously controlled. Excellent for full bodied red wines, ester production complements flavor. WLP760 is also suitable for Merlot, Chardonnay, Chenin Blanc, and Sauvignon Blanc. Attenuation is greater than 80% and flocculation is low. Optimum fermentation temperature is 60-90° F.
WLP775 English Cider : This is a classic cider yeast that ferments dry but retains flavor from apples. Sulfur is produced during fermentation, but will disappear in the first two weeks of aging. This yeast can also be used for wine and high gravity beers. Attenuationis less than 80%, flocculation is medium, and optimum fermentation temperature is 68-75¦ F.
Add 1/2 teaspoon sugar and a pinch of yeast nutrient into 1/2 cup of warm water (104 degrees F. is perfect) and stir until dissolved. Combine this water and the dried yeast culture and supporting media into a sanitized jar and stir. Cover with a napkin secured by a rubber band and set it aside in a warm (but not hot) place. It will take up to two full days (and perhaps as long as four) to activate Vierka yeast and get a healthy starter colony going. To condition the starter for your must, add 1/4 cup of must from your primary and stir. Recover the jar and allow 12 hours for the conditioned starter to get going well. Add this directly to your must, but do not stir. Ideally, the starter should lay at or near the surface of the must for several hours where oxygen is readily available to the yeast. When the must shows clear signs of fermentation, stir it shallowly to mix the yeast into the upper layer of must. When fermentation is vigorous, stir deeply.
The complete line of Vierka yeasts can be obtained from Homebrew Adventures of Charlotte, NC.
Vierka Chablis :
Vierka Johannis Riesling :
Vierka Liebfraumilch :
Vierka Mead :
Vierka Sauterne :
Vierka Sherry :
Vierka Tokay :
Vierka Cold Fermentation :
The complete line of
Vierka liquid yeasts can be obtained from several sources, including the E.C.
Vierka Bordeaux :
Vierka Liebfraumilch :
Vierka Mead :
Vierka Rhine :
Vierka Sauterne :
Vierka Sherry :
Vierka Tokay :
Active Dry Yeasts
Zymaflore VL1 : This
strain was isolated in
Zymaflore VL3 : This
strain was isolated in
Zymaflore F10 : This strain is tailored for the production of full-bodied, well-rounded red wines with good structure. It allows for full expression of varietal character and terroir with improved extraction of polysaccharides and anthocyanins. It is alcohol tolerant to 13-15% and is recommended for use in wines produced for aging, such as Cabernet Sauvignon, Cabernet Franc, Merlot, and Syrah.
Zymaflore F15) : This
strain was selected in
Actiflore F5 : This strain was selected by the Laffort research laboratory (SARCO) for its good implantation and ability to produce wines with more complexity and fruity character. It is particularly good for red wines with average aging potential or to be drunk fairly young. This is a quick starting fermenter with low production of sulfated compounds and a fermentation potential of up to 14.5% alcohol. It can also be used with good results on white and rosé wines and is particularly good with Pinot Noir.
Actiflore BJL : This
strain was isolated in the
Actiflore C (Strain F33) : This strain was selected particularly for its production of colloidal polysaccharides which creates wines with superior balance. It has excellent fermentation characteristics, including good kinetics, low nitrogen requirement, resistance to heat shock, and alcohol tolerance up to 15%. It is a general purpose yeast suitable for the production of whites, rosés and reds.
Unican Yeast - All Purpose :
Unican Yeast -
Unican Yeast - Hock :
Unican Yeast - Port :
Unican Yeast - Sauterne :
Unican Yeast - Sherry :
Unican Yeast - Cold Fermentation :
Unican Yeast - All Purpose (50g Drum) :
Gervin Yeast - No. 1
: Green Label, General purpose
Gervin Yeast - No. 2 : Red Label, Full bodied red table Burgundy/Champagne (Monrachet). Vigorous yeast giving a rapid start-to-finish to fermentation. Excellent for all red table wines, it is especially recommended for making wines from autumn fruits such as blackberries, elderberries and sloes. It will ferment at temperatures down to 15° c. Beware of foam.
Gervin Yeast - No. 3
: Yellow Label, Sparkling, dessert, dry white table
Gervin Yeast - No. 6 : Orange Label, High alcohol, sparkling, restarter for stuck fermentations.
Gervin Yeast - No. 5 : White Label, Quality white table wines. This French yeast is particularly good for making quality white fruit table wines. It forms little foam and ferments well at low temperatures (8-15° c), thus ensuring that the wines develop excellent bouquets.
Gervin Yeast -
Varietal A : Quality red table Bordeaux SF strain. This French yeast was
selected to compliment and enhance the characteristics of the grapes. Used
for the production of red
Gervin Yeast -
Varietal B : Quality white table
Gervin Yeast -
Varietal C :
Gervin Yeast -
Varietal D : Fruit wines from concentrates,
Gervin Yeast - Varietal E : Wine yeast.
Gervin Yeast - High Active Wine Yeast :
SB Active Dry
SB 3 High Alcohol : A tolerant strain specifically suited to the production of dessert wines like port or sherry or typical fruit wines. Temperature range 18-23° c.
SB 4 Rosé : A strain of Bordeaux yeast particularly suited to the making of Rosé table wines, quick to start and is clean and free from excessive froth. Temperature range 18-23° c.
SB 5 Hock : A high quality yeast for white table wines, very good for fermenting at low temperatures. Temperature range 15-20° c.
SB 6 NU Start : A special wine yeast with the ability to re-start stuck musts after partial fermentation. For best results, activate before adding to must. Sachet packaged for 1 to 3 gallons. Temperature range 16-23° c.
SB 8 Sauterne : A Bordeaux strain suited to the production of Sauterne type wines with a high starting sugar content. Temperature range 18-23° c.
SB 9 Chablis : A style highly suited to production of full-bodied dry white wines. Resistant to sulphur dioxide and tolerant to temperature range 18-23° c.
SB 10 General Purpose : Suitable for the production of non-specific wines, like vegetable, fruit, flower and ginger beer. Temperature range 18-23° c.
SB 23 Super Yeast : A superior general purpose yeast which is fast fermenting and with a very high alcohol tolerance. Temperature range 15-20° c.
Other Wine Yeasts
Condessa French Wine Yeast : Sachets available.
Condessa French Champagne : Sachets available.
CWE Formula 67 Yeast : Various quantities available.
CWE High Alcohol Yeast : Sachets available.
Favourite All Purpose Yeast : Sachets available.
Favourite High Active / Restart Yeast : Sachets available.
Formula 1 Superyeast : 100 gr Sachets available
Harris VinKwik Yeast : Sachets available.
Kitzinger Mead : Sachets available.
Ritchie Premier Crus Sherry Yeast : Sachets available.
Solvino Reviver Yeast Sachets available.
Solvino High Alcohol Yeast Sachets available.
Youngs High Active Yeast : Various quantities available.
Kitzinger Malo-Lactic Culture : I have very little information on this culture, except that it is Leuconostoc oenos and is fairly expensive (I have seen it listed as high as $9.50 for a 5-gallon treatment).
Malo-Lactic Culture : Malo-lactic culture blend isolated from western